White Papers

How It's Done.

Our White Papers discuss technical processes and control solutions.
 

Download our latest Petrotech White Paper

“An Alternative Solution for LM6000 Fuel Controls”, highlighting the application specifics necessary to adapt the Petrotech core TFR offering to the LM6000-PC gas turbine.

Please take a moment to read the abstract for each white paper, by clicking on the plus (+) sign.

Advanced Expander Process Controls
Abstract:

Expander systems are found in natural gas separation processes where a raw natural gas steam is separated into products such as pipeline-quality natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs). An Expander system in one of these facilities provides work as a byproduct of the expansion process used to cool a raw natural gas stream. The separation process requires the expansion of the incoming stream to cool the raw natural gas enough to enable the separation and distillation of heavier constituents such as ethane, propane, butane and pentane into NGLs. Following the extraction of the NGLs, the compressor attached to the expander driver compresses the remaining methane/ethane (termed pipeline quality natural gas) mixture up to a sales gas or export pipeline pressure.

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Advanced Steam Turbine Controls - Generator Drives
Abstract:

In process plants, refineries and small power producing facilities, the three most common types of steam turbines include:

  • Straight Flow Turbines
  • Single Extraction/Admission Turbines
  • Double Extraction Turbines

Petrotech Steam Turbine Controller (STC)

The Petrotech STC manages the operation of the steam turbine from issuance of the start command all the way through the warmup to loaded operation. The STC provides a standard foundation to integrate steam turbine control systems into either a mechanical or electrical drive application and provides the appropriate sequence interfaces to the auxiliary systems, such as…

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Advanced Steam Turbine Controls - Mechanical Drives
Abstract:

In process plants, refineries and small power producing facilities, the three most common types of steam turbines include:

  • Straight Flow Turbines
  • Single Extraction/Admission Turbines
  • Double Extraction Turbines

Petrotech Steam Turbine Controller (STC)

The Petrotech STC manages the operation of the steam turbine from issuance of the start command all the way through the warmup to loaded operation. The STC provides a standard foundation to integrate steam turbine control systems into either a mechanical or electrical drive application and provides the appropriate sequence interfaces to the auxiliary systems, such as…

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An Alternative Solution for LM6000 Fuel Controls
Abstract:

A Turbine Fuel Regulator’s (TFR) primary function is to provide an output signal for modulating fuel supply in response to the load demand placed on a gas turbine. Secondary control and monitoring functions include actuation of variable geometry end devices such as inlet guide vanes, bleed valves and stator vanes, as well as protection functions such as stall, over speed and temperature monitoring. The control systems supplied on new gas turbines are most often developed and supplied by the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) for their specific gas turbines. As the machines age beyond the obsolescence of the OEM control systems, end users seek to upgrade and modernize these control systems and often they seek alternatives or 3rd party control system suppliers.

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GE Frame 5 - Black Start Capabilities
Abstract:

Black start generators allow the power producer to restart power production in the absence of an available power grid. Generators with black start capabilities are necessary for key generator systems in either industrial or utility applications to reestablish power production following a partial or system-wide blackout. In general, black start generators are not the large industrial turbine operated by the utilities for the purpose of baseline power supply. Rather they are smaller generator sets which must possess the capability to operate in isochronous mode until the power grid is restored. Then they must be able to switch over to droop mode if they are required to produce normal grid power.

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Hydro Control Strategy
Abstract:

In run-of-river hydroelectric plant operation, the primary objective is to use the available natural river flow into the reservoir above the dam to generate electricity via hydro-turbine generators, while keeping the reservoir elevation constant within a defined band (typically specified by FERC licensing requirements). Ideally we want to match water flow into the reservoir with the flow through the hydro-turbine.

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Multi-Compressor Capacity Optimization
Abstract:

When operating centrifugal compressors in parallel, efficient Multi-Compressor Capacity Optimization requires a coordinated control strategy to achieve the overall system capacity demand, energy efficient and stable operation of the compressors. A coordinated control strategy requires two fundamental components; capacity and loadshare controllers.

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Single Valve Fuel Gas System Retrofits
Abstract:

Many existing Frame 5 turbine fuel gas systems use two modulating valves to supply the correct amount of fuel to the gas turbine. The upstream valve (Speed Ratio Valve or SRV) controls the inlet pressure to the downstream valve (Fuel Control Valve or FCV). The FCV then acts to regulate fuel flow in response to a position demand signal generated by the turbine fuel regulator (TFR). In 2-valve fuel control systems, the FCV inlet pressure setpoint is a function of turbine speed. Thus, at low turbine speeds, the SRV adjusts the FCV inlet pressure to some lower value. Conversely at high turbine speeds, the SRV adjusts the FCV inlet pressure to some higher value. When retrofitting 2-valve fuel gas systems, it is possible to use a single fuel control valve solution. Single valve systems are less complex and more compact than 2-valve systems. They also eliminate the need for hydraulic systems. And single valve fuel gas systems do not require a fuel valve inlet pressure transmitter to operate.

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